Adenoviruses (ADV) are non-enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses, with nearly 50 serotypes identified. The commonly used adenovirus vectors, based on serotype 5 (Ad5), are genetically to delete the E1 and E3 genes, which reduces their replication ability. These recombinant viruses only replicate in cells with high-level expression of the E1 gene, making it an efficient control system suitable for therapeutic applications. Compared to other virus types, adenoviruses offer several advantages: they have a large vector capacity (up to 7.5kb), a broad host range, high infection efficiency, and are highly suitable for research requiring high-level gene expression within a short timeframe. It finds extensive applications in basic research and gene therapy fields.
Products and Services
uBriGene offers a variety of adenovirus controls and tools, covering fluorescent proteins like GFP, RFP, mCherry, as well as a wide range of genes such as CRE recombinase, autophagy-related genes, and genes related to COVID-19. These products are designed to meet your multifaceted research needs and are available as pre-made, in-stock items, which can significantly reduce your order lead time.
In addition to the pre-made viruses mentioned above, uBriGene leverages a mature and stable adenovirus packaging process. This allows us to provide custom production of small-scale preparations for in vitro and in vivo research, as well as cGMP-grade large-scale adenovirus for clinical applications. Our services include gene synthesis, plasmid construction, virus packaging, and purification. We cover custom adenovirus packaging services for gene overexpression, interference, and knockout across multiple species. The adenoviruses we prepare have a high titer of over 1E10 pfu/ml and high purity, making them suitable for direct use in both in vitro and in vivo studies.
Adenovirus Production and Quality Control
Adenovirus production and quality control processes
Adenovirus is a virus particle with a diameter of 90-100 nm. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 240 hexon proteins, 12 penton proteins, 12 fibers, and some small proteins. The capsid surface is based on the penton proteins from which 12 fibers extend. At the tip of each fiber, there is a head region. The head region of the penton and fiber can bind to receptors on the cell surface, playing a crucial role in the process of virus infection in cells.
(Waye, M. M. Y. et al., Pharmaceuticals. 2010）
The genome of mammalian adenovirus is a linear double-stranded DNA approximately 36 kb in length. At both ends of the genome, there are about 100 bp of inverted terminal repeat sequences (ITR). The inner side of the ITR contains the virus packaging signal Ψ, which is involved in the encapsidation of the adenovirus genome. Based on the genomic structure of human serotype 5 adenovirus and considering the functions of various genes, scientists have developed Ad5 adenovirus vectors with deletions of the E1 and E3 genes. The E1 gene is essential for assembling infectious virus particles but can be complemented in HEK293 packaging cells, while the E3 gene does not affect virus packaging. Due to the deletion of the E1 and E3 genes, adenovirus vectors can accommodate the insertion of exogenous genes up to 7.5 kb in size.
Genome of Human Serotype 5 Adenovirus
Advantages of Adenovirus
When applied in vitro, adenovirus vectors demonstrate high transgene efficiency, achieving nearly 100% transduction efficiency. They can transduce various cell types, making them a valuable tool for gene delivery, especially in cells that are challenging to transfect. However, when used in vivo, adenovirus vectors are highly immunogenic and can lead to intense immune responses. Consequently, they often trigger local tissue inflammation and systemic immune reactions, which can affect the reliability of animal behaviors and experimental outcomes.
Large vector capacity: Up to 7.5kb, suitable for packaging large genes;
Broad Infection Range: Adenovirus vectors can infect not only common cell lines but also challenging cells like suspended and primary cells.
High transduction efficiency: when applied in vitro, adenovirus vectors exhibit up to 100% infection efficiency.
High viral titer: Titers can reach 10E10-11 pfu/mL after purification and concentration.